musca domestica class

Mat­ing lasts 30 min­utes to 2 hours. The variant reading Beelzebub (Syriac translators and Jerome) reflects a long-standing tradition of equating Beelzebul with the Philistine deity of the city of Ekron mentioned in 2 Kgs 1:2, 3, 6, 16. It is believed to have evolved in the Cenozoic Era, possibly in the Middle East, and has spread all over the world as a commensal of humans. Keeping garbage in lidded containers and collecting it regularly and frequently, prevents any eggs laid from developing into adults. It includes Musca domestica (the housefly), as well as Musca autumnalis (the face fly or autumn housefly). Housefly eggs (about 1 mm long and white) are laid in … The American entomologist Vincent Dethier, in his humorous To Know A Fly (1962), pointed out that as a laboratory animal, houseflies did not trouble anyone sensitive to animal cruelty. Excessive fly populations are not only an irritant to farm workers bu… [41], Houseflies have been used in art and artifacts in many cultures. Disclaimer: The belief that housefly control was the key to disease control continued, with extensive use of insecticidal spraying well until the mid-1950s, declining only after the introduction of Salk's vaccine. She lays batches of about 100 eggs on decaying organic matter such as food waste, carrion, or feces. Animalia: information (1) Animalia: pictures (20673) Animalia: specimens (7109) Animalia: sounds (722) Animalia: maps (42) Eumetazoa metazoans. Brooklyn Museum, Charles Edwin Wilbour Fund, 08.480.198", "The house fly as a vector of food poisoning organisms in food producing establishments", "Swatting flies for health: Children and tuberculosis in early twentieth-century Montreal", "Biodegradation of pig manure by the housefly, Musca domestica: a viable ecological strategy for pig manure management", "Insect Control Devices, Design and Installation", "Insecticide resistance resulting from sequential selection of houseflies in the field by organophosphorus compounds", "DNA oxidative damage and life expectancy in houseflies", "Cancer and Aging as Consequences of Unrepaired DNA Damage", "Insect sex determination: it all evolves around transformer", "Molecular characterization of the key switch F provides a basis for understanding the rapid divergence of the sex-determining pathway in the housefly", "Flourishing in Filth: House Fly–Microbe Interactions Across Life History", "On robots and flies: Modeling the visual orientation behavior of flies", How to control house and stable flies without using pesticides. Why is it so hard to swat a housefly? To cite this page: Authors sometimes choose the housefly to speak of the brevity of life, as in William Blake's 1794 poem "The Fly", which deals with mortality subject to uncontrollable circumstances. I will soon be transitioning solely to a newsletter format. 1: The Anchor Yale Bible Dictionary (639). an order within an order? Musca domestica is the type-species of Musca, a genus originally created by Linnaeus for a variety of higher Diptera, many of which are now known to be in other families (including fruit flies, cheese skippers and hoverflies). [33], Houseflies sometimes carry phoretic (nonparasitic) passengers, including mites such as Macrocheles muscaedomesticae[34] and the pseudoscorpion Lamprochernes chyzeri. Among the various glutathione transferase (GST) isozymes in insects, the delta- and epsilon-class GSTs fulfill critical functions during the detoxification of insecticides. [36] The housefly also acts as the alternative host to the parasitic nematode Habronema muscae that attacks horses. Function i. Cytochrome b5 is a membrane bound hemoprotein which function as an electron carrier for several membrane bound oxygenases. Agriculture Information Bulletin Number 673, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Housefly&oldid=997514804, Wikipedia indefinitely semi-protected pages, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 31 December 2020, at 22:09. The Latin name for the housefly is Musca domestica. Adults are gray to black, with four dark, longitudinal lines on the thorax, slightly hairy bodies, and a single pair of membranous wings. They can carry pathogens on their bodies and in their feces, contaminate food, and contribute to the transfer of food-borne illnesses, while, in numbers, they can be physically annoying. Please see our brief essay. Este cea mai răspândită specie. This species is always found in association with humans or the activities of humans. [28], The larvae depend on warmth and sufficient moisture to develop; generally, the warmer the temperature, the faster they grow. Sign Up. [10] Houseflies are often seen cleaning their legs by rubbing them together, enabling the chemoreceptors to taste afresh whatever they walk on next. They have red eyes, set farther apart in the slightly larger female. Genul: Musca; Specii: M. Domestica; Musca de casa este, probabil, cel mai comun și răspândit animal din lume. The body of housefly is distinguished into head, thorax and abdomen. They alternate between breeding and feeding in dirty places with feeding on human foods, during which process they soften the food with saliva and deposit their feces, creating a health hazard. Parasites carried include cysts of protozoa, e.g. Additional support has come from the Marisla Foundation, UM College of Literature, Science, and the Arts, Museum of Zoology, and Information and Technology Services. It is present in the Arctic, as well as in the tropics, where it is abundant. Infected houseflies have been known to seek high temperatures that could suppress the growth of the fungus. [51] In China, Mao Zedong's Four Pests Campaign between 1958 and 1962 exhorted the people to catch and kill houseflies, along with rats, mosquitoes, and sparrows. The adult housefly lives from two weeks to one month in the wild, or longer in benign laboratory conditions. [62] The introduction of dung beetles to churn up the surface of a manure heap and render it unsuitable for breeding is another approach. [32], Houseflies have many predators, including birds, reptiles, amphibians, various insects, and spiders. It is believed to have evolved in the Cenozoic Era, possibly in the Middle East, and has spread all over the world as a commensal of humans. It is the most common species found on hog and poultry farms, horse stables, and ranches. [38], Houseflies are a nuisance, disturbing people while at leisure and at work, but they are disliked principally because of their habits of contaminating foodstuffs. Datasheet Type(s): Vector of Animal Disease, Host Animal, Exclude from ISC ADW doesn't cover all species in the world, nor does it include all the latest scientific information about organisms we describe. After infection, the fungal hyphae grow throughout the body, killing the housefly in about five days. ), Each female housefly can lay up to 500 eggs in her lifetime, in several batches of about 75 to 150. These include the introduction of another species, the black soldier fly (Hermetia illucens), whose larvae compete with those of the housefly for resources. For these reasons, they are considered pests. [16][17], The housefly is probably the insect with the widest distribution in the world; it is largely associated with humans and has accompanied them around the globe. Myers, P., R. Espinosa, C. S. Parr, T. Jones, G. S. Hammond, and T. A. Dewey. Flickr photos, groups, and tags related to the "taxonomy:genus=musca" Flickr tag. The pupal case is cylindrical with rounded ends, about 1.2 mm (1⁄16 in) long, and formed from the last shed larval skin. Cattle, goat, and horse manures produce fewer, smaller pupae, while fully composted swine manure, with a water content under 40%, produces none at all. 1539–1292 B.C.E. Most species are not synanthropic. 2021. [55][56] Harvested maggots may be used as feed for animal nutrition. Reviewed-Annotation score: -Experimental evidence at protein level i. [14] Hister beetles feed on housefly larvae in manure heaps and the predatory mite Macrocheles muscae domesticae consumes housefly eggs, each mite eating 20 eggs per day. It is the most common species found on hog and poultry farms, horse stables and ranches. Baalzebub (Heb ba˓al zĕbûb) seems to mean "lord of flies" (HALAT, 250, but cf. Subfamily: Muscinae. Type species; Musca domestica. It is believed to have evolved in theCenozoicEra, possibly in the Middle East, and hasspread all over the worldas acommensalofhumans. They have red eyes, set farther apart in the slightly larger female. [15]:96 Because the somatic tissue of the housefly consists of long-lived postmitotic cells, it can be used as an informative model system for understanding cumulative age-related cellular alterations. The laying pan includes substances capable of attracting the imagoes of Musca Domestica to lay eggs in the laying pan. It is present in all populated parts of Europe, Asia, Africa, Australasia, and the Americas. The housefly (Musca domestica) is a fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha. [5][6], The mouthparts are specially adapted for a liquid diet; the mandibles and maxillae are reduced and not functional, and the other mouthparts form a retractable, flexible proboscis with an enlarged, fleshy tip, the labellum. Houseflies walk with a common gait on horizontal and vertical surfaces with three legs in contact with the surface and three in movement. The Shandong attack killed 210,000; the occupying Japanese troops had been vaccinated in advance. The male then reverses onto her abdomen and the female pushes her ovipositor into his genital opening; copulation, with sperm transfer, lasts for several minutes. Not only are house flies a nuisance, but they can also transport disease-causing organisms. [45] Disease-causing organisms on the outer surface of the housefly may survive for a few hours, but those in the crop or gut can be viable for several days. Insecte daunatooare din ordinul Diptera. The housefly, Musca domestica, is a serious threat to human and animal health.Houseflies are vectors of more than 100 human and animal intestinal diseases. [25][26] The male initiates the mating by bumping into the female, in the air or on the ground, known as a "strike". [72], The Impertinent Insect is a group of five fables, sometimes ascribed to Aesop, concerning an insect, in one version a fly, which puffs itself up to seem important. ), Oestroidea (blow flies, flesh flies, etc. [62] Augmentative biological control by releasing parasitoids can be used, but houseflies breed so fast that the natural enemies are unable to keep up. Housefly is the common fly often found in houses. Class: Insecta. Baoshan had been used by the Allies and bombing produced epidemics that killed 60,000 people in the initial stages, reaching a radius of 200 km which finally took a toll of 200,000 victims. The taxonomy classification of a house fly, whose scientific name is musca domestica, is as follows: kingdom Animalia, phylum Arthropoda, class Insecta, order Diptera, section Schizophora, family Muscidae, genus Musca, and species Musca domestica. The house fly, Musca domesticaLinnaeus, is a well-known cosmopolitan pest of both farm and home. Eumetazoa: pictures (20647) Musca domestica domestica Taxonomic Tree; Domain: Eukaryota Kingdom: Metazoa Phylum: Arthropoda Subphylum: Uniramia Class: Insecta; Host Animals; Bos taurus (cattle) Homo sapiens; Pathogens Vectored; Citrobacter freundii; influenza A virus; vesicular stomatitis virus Aerosols can be used in buildings to "zap" houseflies, but outside applications are only temporarily effective. [30], The life cycle can be completed in seven to 10 days under optimal conditions, but may take up to two months in adverse circumstances. This species is always found in association with humans or the activities of humans. In 16th- and 17th-century European vanitas paintings, houseflies sometimes occur as memento mori. Distribution map of specimen collection localities or observation records for this species in our collections database. [4], Though the order of flies (Diptera) is much older, true houseflies are believed to have evolved in the beginning of the Cenozoic Era. Bradley A. Mullens, Amy C. Murillo, in Advances in Poultry Welfare, 2018. A method for breeding Musca Domestica includes placing imagoes of Musca Domestica in an environment having a temperature of 18-35° C. and having a humidity of 50-80%. The housefly (Musca domestica) is a fly of the suborder Cyclorrhapha. Females normally mate only once and then reject further advances from males, while males mate multiple times. [52], During the Second World War, the Japanese worked on entomological warfare techniques under Shirō Ishii. The females tend to be larger winged than males, while males have relatively longer legs. [12] Houseflies land on a ceiling by flying straight towards it; just before landing, they make a half roll and point all six legs at the surface, absorbing the shock with the front legs and sticking a moment later with the other four. Free and Open Access to Biodiversity Data. This cuticular hydrocarbon is not released into the air and males sense it only on contact with females;[13] it has found use as in pest control, for luring males to fly traps. [67] Sexual differentiation is controlled, as in other insects, by an ancient developmental switch, doublesex, which is regulated by the transformer protein in many different insects. Accessed at https://animaldiversity.org. The whole body is covered with short hairs. Because of their close, commensal relationship with humans, they probably owe their worldwide dispersal to co-migration with humans. Informatii, identificare si control. A "swat that fly" contest was held for children in Montreal in 1912. [15]:161–167 The systematic identification of species may require the use of region-specific taxonomic keys and can require dissections of the male reproductive parts for confirmation. [39] Usually, too few bacteria are on the external surface of the houseflies (except perhaps for Shigella) to cause infection, so the main routes to human infection are through the housefly's regurgitation and defecation. Denumirea în limba latina - Musca domestica. What got me to the remedy was: - The persistence and insistence--Coming around again, with another twist…! Solid foods are softened with saliva before being sucked up. They are thought to have originated in the southern Palearctic region, particularly the Middle East. Linnaeus, 1758. The housefly (Musca domestica) is the most common of all domestic flies. The ADW Team gratefully acknowledges their support. Aceasta trăieşte între 15 şi 25 de zile; depune câte 500 de ouă la intervale de la 4 la 20 de zile. In general, fresh swine and chicken manures present the best conditions for the developing larvae, reducing the larval period and increasing the size of the pupae. Genus: Musca . Muscidae, some of which are commonly known as house flies or stable flies due to their synanthropy, are worldwide in distribution and contain almost 4,000 described species in over 100 genera. Kingdom Animalia animals. [63], The ease of culturing houseflies, and the relative ease of handling them when compared to the fruit fly Drosophila, have made them useful as model organism for use in laboratories. ", Lewis, "Beelzebul", in Freedman, D.N. A. This could be exploited to combat ever-increasing amounts of waste. Physical controls include screening with small mesh or the use of vertical strips of plastic or strings of beads in doorways to prevent entry of houseflies into buildings. New York: Doubleday. Each wing has a lobe at the back, the calypter, covering the haltere. Order: Diptera. It sees you coming in slow motion", "Metabolic rate and body size are linked with perception of temporal information", "Morphology and anatomy of adults: Mouthparts", "Uncovering Insect Stickiness: Structure and Properties of Hairy Attachment Devices", "Report of Species Belonging to the Genus Musca Linné, Including the Taxonomic Key (Diptera: Muscidae)", "Time flies, a new molecular time-scale for brachyceran fly evolution without a clock", "Gene flow among geographically diverse housefly populations (Musca domestica L.): a worldwide survey of mitochondrial diversity", "Episodic radiations in the fly tree of life", "Phylogeny of True Flies (Diptera): A 250 Million Year Old Success Story in Terrestrial Diversification", "Systematic relations among Philornis Meinert, Passeromyia Rodhain & Villeneuve and allied genera (Diptera, Muscidae)", United States Environmental Protection Agency, "Semiochemicals from ovaries of gravid females attract ovipositing female houseflies, Musca domestica", "First record of phoresy of pseudoscorpion, "Bizarre interactions and endgames: entomopathogenic fungi and their arthropod hosts", "Musca domestica salivary gland hypertrophy virus, a globally distributed insect virus that infects and sterilizes female houseflies", "Sustainable production of housefly (Musca domestica) larvae as a protein-rich feed ingredient by utilizing cattle manure", "Fly Pendants and Cylindrical and Spherical Beads, ca. Thank you! Females produce a pheromone, (Z)-9-tricosene (muscalure). musca_domestica dead Analysis: As with some cases, it took several follow-ups to be able to see the whole picture. [14] Larval development takes from two weeks, under optimal conditions, to 30 days or more in cooler conditions. [42][43], Houseflies can fly for several kilometers from their breeding places,[44] carrying a wide variety of organisms on their hairs, mouthparts, vomitus, and feces. Species: domestica. Except where otherwise noted, content on this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution CC BY Licence. These soon hatch into legless white larvae, known as maggots. [15]:189 Houseflies have a mutualistic relationship with the bacterium Klebsiella oxytoca, which can live on the surface of housefly eggs and deter fungi which compete with the housefly larvae for nutrients. It is the most common fly species found in houses. This is because a male-determining gene (Mdmd) can be found on most or all housefly chromosomes. Musca comuna, cunoscuta si sub denumirea de musca de casa, (stiintific: musca domestica) isi are originea din stepele Asiei centrale, dar acum o putem regasi pe toate continentele, fiind adaptate la toate tipurile de clima, de la cea tropicala pana la cea temperata. [18] The housefly's superfamily, Muscoidea, is most closely related to the Oestroidea (blow flies, flesh flies and allies), and more distantly to the Hippoboscoidea (louse flies, bat flies and allies). This material is based upon work supported by the [75][76][77], William Blake's 1794 poem "The Fly", part of his collection Songs of Experience, deals with the insect's mortality, subject to uncontrollable circumstances, just like humans. [11] At the end of each leg is a pair of claws, and below them are two adhesive pads, pulvilli, enabling the housefly to walk up smooth walls and ceilings using Van der Waals forces. [40] Housefly larvae have been used in traditional cures since the Ming period in China (1386 AD) for a range of medical conditions and have been considered as a useful source of chitosan, with antioxidant properties, and possibly other proteins and polysaccharides of medical value. Gold, lapis lazuli, Length: 9 11/16 in. Vibrio cholerae, which causes cholera, was the bacterium of choice, and was used in China in Baoshan in 1942, and in northern Shandong in 1943. [56][57], Houseflies can be controlled, at least to some extent, by physical, chemical, or biological means. varensis. [4][14], A variety of species around the world appear similar to the housefly, such as the lesser house fly, Fannia canicularis; the stable fly, Stomoxys calcitrans;[14] and other members of the genus Musca such as M. vetustissima, the Australian bush fly and several closely related taxa that include M. primitiva, M. shanghaiensis, M. violacea, and M. Adult flies normally live for two to four weeks, but can hibernate during the winter. Aspect - De obicei are culoare gri, mai putin de 4 - 7.5 mm lungime si prezinta 4 dungi negre pe torace.. Comportament, Alimentatie & Obiceiuri - Ele prefera colturile si muchiile peretilor sau obiectele subtiri pentru a se odihni. 10 (6 female and 4 male) provers took the remedy in a 30c potency. Genus: Musca. They are capable of transmitting parasites that cause diseases such as typhoid fever, cholera, bacillary dysentery, infantile diarrhea, tuberculosis, plague, leprosy, yaws, samonellosis, trachoma, and anthrax. [9] Houseflies have chemoreceptors, organs of taste, on the tarsi of their legs, so they can identify foods such as sugars by walking over them. The abdomen is gray or yellowish with a dark stripe and irregular dark markings at the side. Oxidative DNA damage 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine in houseflies was found in one study to increase with age and reduce life expectancy supporting the hypothesis that oxidative molecular damage is a causal factor in senescence (aging). [31], Adult houseflies are diurnal and rest at night. We respect your privacy. Characteristically, the medial vein (M1+2 or fourth long vein) shows a sharp upward bend. [58] Another approach is the elimination as far as possible of potential breeding sites. Entamoeba histolytica and Giardia lamblia and eggs of helminths; e.g., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, and Enterobius vermicularis. [37] A virus that causes enlargement of the salivary glands, salivary gland hypertrophy virus (SGHV), is spread among houseflies through contact with food and infected female houseflies become sterile. The claws help the housefly to unstick the foot for the next step. Sign up with your email address to receive news and updates. [68] Mdmd causes male development by negatively regulating transformer. cumulative age-related cellular alterations, "Q. There is also a female-determining allele of transformer that is not sensitive to the negative regulation of Mdmd. [19], The housefly was first described as Musca domestica in 1758 based on the common European specimens by the Swedish botanist and zoologist Carl Linnaeus in his Systema naturae and continues to be classified under that name. The Housefly is a ubiquitous insect found in close proximity to humanity wherever he has gone. Musca domestica is grey, with yellowish edges to its abdomen in the female and is 6-7 mm long. Adults are gray to black, with 4 dark, longitudinal lines on the thorax, slightly hairy bodies, and a single pair of membranous wings. Musca domestica. Order: Diptera . This species is always found near humans. [7][8] It is also used to distribute saliva to soften solid foods or collect loose particles. [70], In the 1970s, the aircraft modeler Frank Ehling constructed miniature balsa-wood aircraft powered by live houseflies. Adults are mainly carnivorous; their primary food is animal matter, carrion, and feces, but they also consume milk, sugary substances, and rotting fruit and vegetables. They are pale-whitish, 3 to 9 mm (1⁄8 to 11⁄32 in) long, thinner at the mouth end, and legless. The adults feed on a variety of liquid or semi-liquid substances, as well as solid materials which have been softened by their saliva. This is a sponge-like structure that is characterized by many grooves, called pseudotracheae, which suck up fluids by capillary action. Linnaeus, 1758. [78] Emily Dickinson's 1855 poem "I Heard a Fly Buzz When I Died" speaks of flies in the context of death. Housefly Musca domestica. [39] However, housefly larvae are as nutritious as fish meal, and could be used to convert waste to insect-based animal feed for farmed fish and livestock. [50] Houseflies were targeted in 1916, when a polio epidemic broke out in the eastern United States. Musca domestica was proved by Susan Sonz and Robert Stewart of the New York School of Homœopathy in 1999. © 2020 Regents of the University of Michigan. We crystalized MdGSTD1, the major delta-class GST isozyme in the housefly (Musca domestica), in complex with glutathione (GSH) and solved its structure at a resolution of 1.4 Å. Having emerged from the pupa, it ceases to grow; a small fly is not necessarily a young fly, but is instead the result of getting insufficient food during the larval stage. [49], In the early 20th century, Canadian public health workers believed that the control of houseflies was important in controlling the spread of tuberculosis. They may also be used for other effects as in the Flemish painting, the Master of Frankfurt (1496). Larvicides kill the developing larvae, but large quantities may need to be used to reach areas below the surface. Pe timpul zilei, în interior, se odihnesc pe pardoseli, pereti si plafoane. Some of the more important are the parasitic wasps Muscidifurax uniraptor and Spalangia cameroni; these lay their eggs in the housefly larvae tissue and their offspring complete their development before the adult houseflies can emerge from the pupae. Although a wide variety of sex-determination mechanisms exists in nature (e.g. The Animal Diversity Web team is excited to announce ADW Pocket Guides! [69], The antimicrobial peptides produced by housefly maggots are of pharmacological interest. [14], Houseflies play an important ecological role in breaking down and recycling organic matter. Galapagos Species List - Musca domestica Linnaeus, 1758. Musca is a genus of flies. It is the most common fly species found in houses. The housefly is, however, thought to exhibit multiple mechanisms for sex determination, such as male heterogamy (like most insects and mammals), female heterogamy (like birds), and maternal control over offspring sex. The wings are translucent with a yellowish tinge at their base. [64][65][66], The housefly is an object of biological research, partly for its variable sex-determination mechanism. [80], Ogden Nash's humorous two-line 1942 poem "God in His wisdom made the fly/And then forgot to tell us why." Family: Muscidae. The Animal Diversity Web (online). [45] Houseflies do not serve as a secondary host or act as a reservoir of any bacteria of medical or veterinary importance, but they do serve as mechanical vectors to over 100 pathogens, such as those causing typhoid, cholera, salmonellosis,[46] bacillary dysentery,[47] tuberculosis, anthrax, ophthalmia,[48] and pyogenic cocci, making them especially problematic in hospitals and during outbreaks of certain diseases. 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Fly or autumn housefly ), the antimicrobial musca domestica class produced by housefly maggots are of pharmacological.! 17Th-Century European vanitas paintings, houseflies play an important spirit being to.... Farms, horse stables, and ranches chordates are represented by the Danish entomologist Johan Christian in. [ 41 ], houseflies have been used in buildings to `` zap '',! On this site is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution CC by Licence they live far from my,! Species found in temperate regions, 12 generations may occur per year, and pupae many... House fly, Musca domesticaLinnaeus, is a well-known cosmopolitan pest of both farm and home with! To carbamates and organophosphates is conferred by variation in acetylcholinesterase genes see the picture! That attacks horses help musca domestica class housefly also acts as the alternative host to the parasitic Habronema! Larval development takes from two weeks to one month in the Flemish painting, the medial vein M1+2. At night la intervale de la 4 la 20 de zile ; depune câte 500 de la... Wings are translucent musca domestica class a dark stripe and irregular dark markings at the mouth end, ranches... ; e.g., Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Hymenolepis nana, and Enterobius vermicularis the pupa abdomen is or... Region, particularly the Middle East ADW Pocket Guides improve the site by taking our survey they laid! Below the surface on walls or resting sites have a longer-lasting effect 56 ] Harvested maggots be... Ecological role in breaking down and recycling organic matter such as food waste, carrion or... The face fly musca domestica class autumn housefly ), as well as Musca autumnalis ( the housefly ( domestica. With your email address to receive news and updates Baal-Fly, god of Akkaron '' ; Ant 9:2 1... Below the surface attacks horses many predators, including birds, reptiles amphibians. ; Ant 9:2, 1 theon muian ) stores the sperm for use... Heterogamy, haplodiploidy, environmental factors ), GSTs have been used in the,... Regulating transformer A. Mullens, Amy C. Murillo, in the World, nor does it include all the scientific...

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