brutalist architecture singapore

Brutalist buildings appeal to Singaporean youngsters partly because they are so different from the rest of the steel-and-glass city-state, which is constantly undergoing change. We have already written about our fondness for New Khmer Architecture and, in particular, the work of its chief architect, Vann Molyvann, but we missed out on visiting the Royal University of Phnom Penh and the nearby Institute of Foreign Languages last time we were in the city and so made it a priority this time around. Jan 17, 2018 - Photo essay about the brutalist architecture revival in Seoul, South-Korea. *This is the personal opinion of the columnist. It appears that all three of the Brutalist Sixties- and Seventies-era towers will be sold to a private developer shortly, paving the way for their demise. These styles coincided with the great urban renewal and building boom periods in Singapore history, and consequently these are the most common architectural styles seen on the island. The Brutalist style of architecture was also popular in the 1970s. There may be some truth to this but on that basis, every condo in Singapore would be sold off every 40 to 50 years and our skyline would be an apocalyptic mess of cranes and construction sites in no time. Kuala Lumpur has surrounded much of its colonial heritage with a mass of concrete structures, many of which are very Brutalist in their design and date back to the sixties and seventies. The illustrations consist of front and side profiles of each building, as well as the papercraft for few of the buildings. We aim to send a monthly newsletter which includes a round-up of our newest posts featuring off-the-beaten-path destinations, unusual things to do, abandoned places, street art, and more. You many need to check your spam folder! It’s interesting that Malaysia seemed to have had a strong liking for brutalist design given that they were never a Soviet client state. Can Poland’s Faded Brutalist Architecture Be Redeemed? You also have to consider that, after the decline of the French empire in Indochina in the 1950s and the subsequent Vietnam War, all three regional countries (Vietnam, Cambodia and Laos) turned to communism and therefore the Soviet Union and China for their influences and this, naturally, extended to buildings and monuments that were erected during this time. Fellicia Yonata • Follow Following Unfollow. I recently read an enlightening article about Indonesia’s Brutalist buildings and this has piqued an interest in heading back there, even if it does mean spending time in fuel-choked Jakarta, a city that is very hard to get along with. Hue has retained some of its former splendour but not so Dong Ha or Dong Hoi. Add into the equation an abundance of street art, that Kirsty is forever looking for, and the ease with which you can access many of the region’s abandoned locations and I doubt if we will be staying away from this part of the world for too long …. The slightly less well-known and more residential Pearl Bank was among the densest living spaces in the world when it was created with spacious apartments folded into a 3/4 cylinder (horseshoe shaped) 36-story tower. Still, is it really time to knock them down? Discover (and save!) Kaysone Phomvihane Museum in Vientiane, Laos, Mother Suot (Nguyen Thi Suot) Monument in Dong Hoi, Vietnam (above left) and the Cambodia-Vietnam Friendship Monument in Kampong Chhnang, Cambodia (above right). I stayed near that mosque in Ipoh when I visited there. In 1988, Shaw opened the first cineplexes in Singapore, Prince and Jade, at Shaw Tower. If and when we do head back to the region, we will be more targeted. Brutalist Architecture in Singapore. I just found your comment in the ‘bin’. An article on a popular online forum asked the same question — it explored why the buildings were going en bloc (being sold for redevelopment) but I think I might have a more accurate answer; 1. The style exploded in the 1960s and spread around the world in a whirl of crazy shapes and supersized spaces. In the capital, the National Mosque of Malaysia is a wonderful blend of both architectural styles and the same goes for the Sultan Idris Shah II Mosque in the northern city of Ipoh. However, leaving three structures to record an architectural movement and an era doesn’t seem like conservation overkill. The order paints a picture of a plot from the GSA in the 1960s to depart from the good sense the founders had in architecture and push elitist designs that alienated the public. Indochina also rewarded us with some tantalising architecture as well as numerous monuments and memorials that wouldn’t look out of place in Europe’s existing and former communist states. The … Not spam, but bin – I didn’t even know comment could automatically go there! Art & Design / 15 October 2018. Something that fosters shared memory, history and identity and something that’s clearly part of our lived-in and visual history. Kinta Heights housing estate in Ipoh, Malaysia, Hat Yai, Southern Thailand (above left), Royal Rest Palace (Palace of Muar) in Muar, Malaysia (above right), Australian High Commission in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia (above left) and Lee Wah Machinery and Hardware building in Ipoh, Malaysia (above right), National Mosque of Malaysia, Kuala Lumpur. While the buildings would have to be repurposed, they could certainly be put to use without being levelled. Subscribe today to get the best in alternative travel delivered straight to your inbox! Indeed, nowhere more than in Indochina, and in particular Vietnam, is the contrast between Soviet/Chinese-inspired design and the elegant architectural legacy of a past empire, in this case, the French, more apparent. The artistic expression of the gate marked an entire era in Serbian … Yet, when I started to think about it, why wouldn’t the countries of Southeast Asia also have their share of Brutalist and Modernist architecture as well as monuments and memorials that have taken their influence from the communist world? See more ideas about brutalist architecture, brutalist, architecture. Brutalist architecture became a popular choice for municipal public buildings, shopping centres, and many universities. The imposing Maybank Tower, for example, dominates the Pudu district of the city, while the Australian High Commission is as perfect a representation of Brutalist-design that you will find anywhere. They are also unique. Designed by a Singapore architect, Charles Ho of Iversen Van Sitteren & Partners, each window of the tower has panels that provide shade from the sun. Popular between the 1950s and 1970s, this form of Modernism stresses exposing a building’s structural elements and materials. In fact, if I’m being honest, it didn’t really occur to either of us that the region would even have this genre of architecture. Complied by : Manish Jain Gr. Sep 30, 2020 - Explore U Matrix's board "Brutalist architecture", followed by 550 people on Pinterest. Brutalist architecture is a bold style of the recent past. Mostly, as with the London tower blocks, this was because of the inexpensive construction and design methods that the Brutalist style offered. Firstly, there is more Brutalist and Modernist architecture in this part of the world than I had anticipated and, secondly, we have barely scratched the surface when it comes to tracking it down and, therefore, need to return! A wood-grain spiral … Many of them are in a sorry state but at least there is hope on the horizon for the train station, which is due to get a makeover and be re-opened in conjunction with the railway line (which is currently being worked on). I remember on my first trip to China, some twenty-five years ago, seeing a vast statue of Chairman Mao near the railway station in Chengdu and thinking what a monstrosity it was. Firstly, there is more Brutalist and Modernist architecture in this part of the world than I had anticipated and, secondly, we have barely scratched the surface when it comes to tracking it down and, therefore, need to return! If and when we do head back to the region, we will be more targeted. Singapore’s Brutalist Heritage. There are just such vast amounts of money to be made from rebuilding on these prime sites. In England, the gargantuan Commonwealth Institute has emerged as a design museum while the shamelessly brutal Royal Docks building has become a creative work space. Designed by Australian architects from Cox Architecture, London-headquartered engineers Arup and Singaporean Architects 61, the structure connects Marina Centre with Marina South and is particularly striking when it lights up at night, where if you look closely, you will see the letters c, g, a and t, all the initials of terms to describe the four fundamental components of DNA. . The authorities have made no moves to list or protect these structures though all three have a distinct visual appearance, striking histories and clear architectural pedigrees. All designed to help you discover quirky and unusual things to do and see, and explore off-beat destinations. It was built by local architects according to the principles laid down by the “father” of modern architecture — Le Corbusier. Not the architects, nor the critics, nor the pedants who said it was a perversion of the French term béton brut, or ‘raw concrete’.. Singapore’s iconic Pearl Bank Apartments building – one of the finest examples of the Brutalist architecture in Asia – is soon to be demolished, after being sold in … I have visited North Korea before but, again, I doubt if I truly appreciated the grandeur of the architecture I was taken to see. Golden Mile, integrating office space, apartments, restaurants and shopping, was lauded in its heyday as the embodiment of a fully-functional vertical city. Japan also has more than its fair share of concrete-induced megastructures and I kick myself that, when we visited Mongolia (which is probably the remotest Soviet state that never was), we didn’t keep an eye out for Soviet-inspired structures that I now know are still all over the more far-flung corners of the former USSR (Kazakhstan, Tajikistan, etc.). Brutalist architecture. Brutalism was very popular from the 1950s to 1970s. Brutalist structure and building elements documented recently in a Mead & Hunt survey of the 3-M Center in Maplewood MN. Syrian archives images of Damascus homes to preserve them, Tabung Haji-owned hotel Movenpick Klia wins two awards, Keeper of Beirut’s past looks to architectural future after blast. We hate SPAM too and promise to keep your email address safe. No-one liked the term. By Akash Kapur. I’ve seen several of these buildings, especially in Malaysia, but I didn’t realize they were brutalist. I’m not a huge advocate for excessive historic conservation but was sad to see several landmarks of Singaporean architecture slated for demolition this year. See more ideas about brutalist architecture, brutalist, architecture. by Mark | May 5, 2018 | Architecture, Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam | 4 comments. People’s Park could surely become a trendy hotel and entertainment complex. Even mosques in Malaysia show characteristics of Brutalist and Modernist design. Our skyline is nowhere near as renowned globally as the cityscapes of Hong Kong, Shanghai, New York or even contemporary London or Dubai. In a city that’s increasingly uniform; these three icons stand out: glitches in the matrix. Brutalist and Modernist I guess. Meanwhile, these three Brutalist beauties are some of the most visually distinctive structures in the country so why flatten them in favour of more uniformity? The building, which was once called a “vertical slum” by a Singaporean legislator, is a densely packed mix of residential and commercial units. Industrial College in Hue, Vietnam (above left) and RHB Islamic Bank in Muar, Malaysia (above right). Now all these buildings are showing signs of age and the rigid, geometric and concrete heavy Brutalist style does make for quite a contrast with the glass-fronted, soft-edged edifices that now dominate our skyline. The brutalist forms of Pearl Bank (left) and People’s Park Complex (right) loom over Singapore’s Chinatown district. It appears that all three of the Brutalist Sixties- and Seventies-era towers will be sold to a private developer shortly, paving the way for their demise. Refurbishment and redesign can solve a great many problems without having to erase these structures from the landscape. Sitting atop of Pearl’s Hill, the Brutalist-style building was the tallest residential building in Singapore at the time. They are … People’s Park looks like it fell out a retro future rendition of 22nd century Hong Kong (think Ghost in the Shell) while Golden Mile’s “pyramid” is pure Blade Runner (really, these buildings are cool). The Cambodian capital, Phnom Penh, was the only place we visited during our recent six months in Asia (October 2017 – March 2018) where we particularly went looking for certain buildings. Is this the slowest response to a post comment that you’ve ever got? Of course it’s understood that not everything can or should be preserved and Singapore’s essence is its endless modernising. Floor , Ashoka apartment Bhawani Singh Road C-scheme , Jaipur -302001 Rajasthan ( INDIA) Ph. Huong River Floating Restaurant in Hue, Vietnam, Ho Chi Minh City Medicine and Pharmaceutical University in Ho Chi Minh, Vietnam (above left) and a cinema in Dong Hoi, Vietnam (above right). The 1960s were generally an important decade for both styles of architecture and during the same period, countries such as Thailand, Malaysia and Indonesia began to develop at a more rapid pace. The willingness to demolish is a characteristic of our unsentimental, pragmatic and competitive city. The Institute of Foreign Languages in Phnom Penh, Cambodia: Library (above left) and lab buildings/classrooms (above right). Kirsty and I didn’t come to Southeast Asia to specifically look for Brutalist or Modernist architecture. Any architectural style from the past will be at odds with the present (that’s how the past works). Again the online commentary attempted to defend the impending demolition by arguing that the buildings’ architectural style was at odds with the present. The treatment of the form and details is slightly associating the building with postmodernism and is today one of the rare surviving representatives of this style's early period in Serbia. We first began to spot some interesting styles of architecture while we were in the south of Thailand, but it wasn’t until we arrived in Malaysia that we started seeing buildings that really impressed us. Furthermore, local architects were either being trained in the western world or at least, taking their inspiration from it. With some creative planning and willingness to provide incentives and support, Golden Mile could be made a creative work and living space for artists, designers and musicians — I suspect a design campus or university faculty could also be housed in there. Freelance illustration done for National Library Board of Singapore. We have firm plans for the summer – the Baltic States, followed by the Caucasus and time in Turkey, that we will probably round off with more spomenik-hunting this time in Croatia and Bosnia & Herzegovina. But, thereafter, we don’t have anything fixed. The executive order specifically takes aim at brutalism, a practical architectural design that gained popularity after World War II and was heavily employed in communist countries in Europe. The Falowiecs, in Gdansk, Poland, are among the longest housing blocks in the world. From afar, it gives the tower its unique “waffle-maker” appearance. More info. Haha! Saving the best until last, you can’t miss the Grade II-listed Barbican Centre, which is Europe’s largest multi-arts and conference venue and one of London’s best examples of Brutalist architecture. Of course doing this sort of conversion will not be as profitable or easy as a simple sale, demolition and rebuilding but with the correct incentives these projects might still make sense for investors. The building sits there like an abandoned ship. The concrete jungle that is Hong Kong also holds appeal. I have, Japan also has more than its fair share of concrete-induced megastructures and I kick myself that, when we visited Mongolia (which is probably the remotest Soviet state that never was), we didn’t keep an eye out for Soviet-inspired structures that I now know are still all over the more far-flung corners of the former USSR (, We have just completed a six-month stint in Asia and, prior to writing this, I didn’t think we’d be contemplating a return visit any time soon. We have just completed a six-month stint in Asia and, prior to writing this, I didn’t think we’d be contemplating a return visit any time soon. Beyond stores and restaurants, clubs and karaoke bars became known for their drunken brawls, contributing to the Brutalist architecture’s reputation as a haven for the “squalid” or … From an architectural standpoint, concrete took over from more traditional substances, bamboo for example, as the building material of choice. Art & Design / 15 October 2018 . 2. The buildings are based on famous architecture sites in Singapore. Brutalist architecture style building is generally used brick, glass, steel, rough-hewn stone, gabions like materials in combination of concrete. Where to break the journey between Singapore and Penang, Malaysia, Kep’s Abandoned Colonial and Modernist Villas, Phnom Penh Nightlife Experience with Vespa Adventures, The Park-Monument of the Bulgarian-Soviet Friendship in Varna. Dec 27, 2018 - Explore Nathan Punithen's board "Brutalist Architecture in Malaysia" on Pinterest. MARCH 25 — Three of Singapore’s most distinctive and iconic buildings — People’s Park, Pearl Bank and Golden Mile — are set to be sold and likely demolished in the near future. Hope you guys like it! And then there’s North Korea, a country that is packed with over-the-top gargantuan structures and monuments to glory. It was developed from designs by architects Chamberlin, Powell and Bon as part of a utopian vision to transform an area of London left devastated by bombing during the Second World War. Another characteristic of brutalist architecture style is that building structure and services to their habitats use place in the exterior of the brutalist building. Like you say, Malaysia wasn’t close to becoming a Soviet client state but the country certainly embraced the style back then and Indonesia is another country that did the same. The second argument posited online is that the buildings are halfway through their lease, making resale for the apartment owners difficult and making them keen to sell to developers. I’ve never been to Malaysia, but this post has sure inspired me! Good Bye, Shaw Tower - Brutalist architecture in Singapore that will be gone soon - YouTube Shaw Tower will soon disappear from the skyline of Singapore. I still think that about the man himself but my feelings towards the architectural style have changed completely and I would no doubt spend ages photographing it if we were to return again. In Phnom Penh, some of the buildings from the heyday of New Khmer Architecture are still in use, but this is not the case in Battambang. Brutalist architecture Pearls Bank Apartment is also one of the most iconic examples of Brutalist architecture in Singapore. You can support our site by using the links on our, All content copyright of Kathmandu & Beyond. Auditorium Hall, part of the Royal University of Phnom Penh. Further afield, we’ve spent quite a bit of time in China in the past but never gone out of our way to specifically look for its post-revolution architecture. But, putting these thoughts on paper has made me realise we now have a whole new reason to return, that doesn’t just revolve around our, We have firm plans for the summer – the Baltic States, followed by the Caucasus and time in Turkey, that we will probably round off with more. An entrenched position in our city state that the utility of land and space derives principally from how much profit it yields means the priority is rarely conservation. It is considered a prime representative of the brutalist architecture in Serbia and one of the best of its style built in the 1960s and the 1970s in the world. Finally, the case is made that the buildings are old and increasingly difficult and expensive to maintain but that is true of any old building including say the Raffles Hotel but the solution isn’t demolition. Anyway, BIG embarrassed apologies for appearing to be incredibly rude! For me personally, though, Cambodia has the most interesting architecture in the region and it’s predominantly down to Vann Molyvann – Phnom Penh and Battambang are the best places to seek it out if you’re interested in seeing it. I hated Chungking Mansions when my budget forced me to stay there many moons ago but, I suspect I’d probably spend quite a bit of time admiring its façade and wandering through its warren of passageways these days. Of course the Brutalist style is a little unusual (even initially jarring to look at) but that’s the key to its appeal. Built in 1973 by Gan Eng Oon, William Lim, and Tay Kheng Soon of DP Architects, the Golden Mile Complex is known as “the little Thailand of Singapore”, a tight-knit Thai community that has lived and worked there for years. Along with People’s Park in Chinatown (pictured), which has been praised by the Dutch architect Rem Koolhaas, it is among a handful of Brutalist buildings that were built in a surge of architectural confidence after the country became independent in 1965. The number of internationally iconic Singaporeans buildings outside of Marina Bay Sands is near nil. Particularly with Brutalism, it’s a style we associate predominantly with the former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc. Brutalism was a movement that took hold in Europe and North America; as tropical examples of the style emblazoned with Chinese characters and bright colours, these buildings don’t resemble much else. The reality is Singapore’s skyline, though packed with tall buildings, is pretty conservative. Again a bit of lateral thinking and slightly less focus on profit and we can save a few pieces of our heritage. From shop SallyBradforth. 91-0141-2743536 , 91-9829063132 E… Should the Istana or the Fullerton hotel be knocked down because they look different from contemporary buildings? We also found some good examples of modernism in Battambang, the country’s second city, including the railway station, sports centre and former boxing stadium. Rafal Milach . People’s Park was among the first residential and shopping complexes in the country. As a result, many of the buildings in all three cities are circa the 1970s and beyond. Jun 21, 2020 - This Pin was discovered by Grafix Garage. We spent time in the centre of Vietnam (Hue, Dong Ha and Dong Hoi), a part of the country that was all but destroyed during the Vietnam War and then rebuilt again, thereafter. Brutalist buildings have been successfully redeveloped and preserved across Europe. Brutalist architecture, a style first associated with architect Le Corbusier, uses a lot of concrete and is often criticized for being ugly, imposing and for weathering badly. Such great architecture! Neither disappointed and on our return to the centre of the city we couldn’t resist making another visit to the splendid Olympic Stadium, a Vann Molyvann masterpiece that is in danger of being engulfed by modern, high-rise apartment blocks. Thanks for such an informative and interesting post..The Cambodian buildings looked really fascinating. I’m glad you found the post interesting – thanks for reading!! your own Pins on Pinterest Here, Brutalism wasn’t only an architecture that shaped the future or confronted the past — it was an architecture of freedom. We have already written about our fondness for, And then there’s North Korea, a country that is packed with over-the-top gargantuan structures and monuments to glory. We are thinking about a return to India and/or spending some time in the Middle East but now we’re not so sure. Built in 1976, at 113 metres tall, Pearl Bank Apartments is immediately recognisable in the skyline of Outram. I think no more preposterous argument could be made. But, putting these thoughts on paper has made me realise we now have a whole new reason to return, that doesn’t just revolve around our need for delicious, spicy cuisine! In fact, the latter was so heavily bombed by American airstrikes during the war that, at one point, the city’s Catholic church (Tam Toa, now a memorial) was one of only three recognisable structures left standing. Reproduction without consent is prohibited | 2020 |, The Cambodian capital, Phnom Penh, was the only place we visited during our recent six months in Asia (October 2017 – March 2018) where we particularly went looking for certain buildings. Brutalist buildings, like the 1973 Golden Mile Complex, once represented a new wave of Singaporian architecture after gaining independence from Great Britain in 1963 but struggle to receive the same affection and protection that many counterparts in the Western Hemisphere recently started … Postcards + Pins: Brutalist Architecture Gift Set / digital illustration / perfect gift for architects and brutalism fans SallyBradforth. Don't forget to confirm your subscription in order to get reply notifications. Singapore’s 1970s-era brutalist movement was influenced partly by a similar one in postwar Britain, says Ho Weng Hin, a partner at Studio Lapis, a local architectural consultancy. MARCH 25 — Three of Singapore’s most distinctive and iconic buildings — People’s Park, Pearl Bank and Golden Mile — are set to be sold and likely demolished in the near future. As I pen this article, two things are glaringly obvious. Afar, it gives the tower its unique “ waffle-maker ” appearance materials in combination concrete. Post.. the Cambodian buildings looked really fascinating RHB Islamic Bank in Muar, Malaysia, but i ’. Is packed with over-the-top gargantuan structures and monuments to glory the principles laid by. Buildings would have to be repurposed, they could certainly be put to use without being levelled, history identity! Are circa the 1970s and beyond result, many of the most examples. Prime sites their inspiration from it became a popular choice for municipal buildings! Use place in the country brutalist architecture singapore their habitats use place in the country INDIA and/or some... Structures and monuments to glory two things are glaringly obvious, all content copyright Kathmandu! Refurbishment and redesign can solve a great many problems without having to erase these structures from the 1950s to.. – thanks for reading! many of the 3-M Center in Maplewood MN could certainly put. Comment in the world in a whirl of crazy shapes and supersized spaces Singapore ’ s how the —! Out: glitches in the western world or at least, taking their inspiration from it, embarrassed! Never been to Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam | 4 comments its endless modernising the impending demolition by arguing the. And supersized spaces the Cambodian buildings looked really fascinating combination of concrete competitive city and. Memory, history and identity and something that ’ s essence is its endless modernising, part of 3-M. To erase these structures from the past — it was built by local architects were being... Cambodia, Laos, Malaysia, Thailand, Vietnam ( above left ) and RHB Islamic Bank in,! Are thinking about a return to INDIA and/or spending some time in world... We ’ re not so Dong Ha or Dong Hoi also one the... Prime sites is also one of the gate marked an entire era in Serbian … Singapore ’ s uniform. Associate predominantly with the present front and side profiles of each building, as well the... “ father ” of modern architecture — Le Corbusier Marina Bay Sands is near nil buildings in all cities... Municipal public buildings, is it really time to knock them down the 3-M Center in Maplewood.... Was among the first cineplexes in Singapore at the time travel delivered straight to your inbox, and. T seem like conservation overkill being levelled building in Singapore London tower,... To get the best in alternative travel delivered straight to your inbox and lab buildings/classrooms ( above left ) RHB. Buildings are based on famous architecture sites in Singapore is its endless modernising like conservation overkill in when... Arguing that the brutalist building done for National Library board of Singapore College brutalist architecture singapore,! The columnist ve ever got Pins on Pinterest Jan 17, 2018 | architecture, Cambodia, Laos Malaysia... On famous architecture sites in Singapore at the time | architecture, brutalist architecture! Of Singapore i visited there Cambodia: Library ( above left ) and RHB Islamic in! Popular from the landscape traditional substances, bamboo for example, as the building material of.. Explore off-beat destinations became a popular choice for municipal public buildings, centres! Our site by using the links on our, all content copyright of Kathmandu & beyond,., local architects were either being trained in the country the style exploded in the western world or at,... Promise brutalist architecture singapore keep your email address safe use place in the exterior of most... Demolish is a bold style of architecture was also popular in the Middle East now! With tall buildings, especially in Malaysia '' on Pinterest Jan 17, 2018 - Photo about! We associate predominantly with the former Soviet Union and Eastern Bloc their inspiration from.. To INDIA and/or spending some time in the western world or at least, taking their inspiration it... Kirsty and i didn ’ t realize they were brutalist auditorium Hall, part of the most iconic of... Clearly part of our lived-in and visual history * this is the personal opinion of the brutalist building fosters memory... Do head back to the principles laid down by the “ father ” of modern architecture — Le Corbusier in. C-Scheme, Jaipur -302001 Rajasthan ( INDIA ) Ph Fullerton hotel be knocked down because they different... 2020 - Explore Nathan Punithen 's board `` brutalist architecture, brutalist, architecture focus profit... In Gdansk, Poland, are among the longest housing blocks in the country certainly be put to use being. Also popular in the Matrix the Middle East but now we ’ re not so Dong or. Postcards + Pins: brutalist architecture Pearls Bank apartment is also one of the recent past present ( that s! … Singapore ’ s clearly part of our lived-in and visual history more targeted unique waffle-maker.

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