cyp1a2 aa caffeine

All trials were performed in the morning hours (between 7 am and noon), and at the same time of the day across the sessions for each participant, to ensure that the results were not affected by circadian variation [14]. A recent meta-analysis found that caffeine ingestion enhances mean and peak movement velocity in resistance exercise [27]. After exercise, in the placebo and caffeine conditions, respectively, 85% and 69% of the participants with the AA genotype correctly guessed the treatment identity beyond chance. 2016;54:479–86. 2016;16:1079–86. CYP1A2: Caffeine tolerance. During each repetition, a GymAware linear position transducer (GymAware Power Tool, Kinetic Performance Technologies, Canberra, Australia) was attached to the barbell and used to measure mean concentric velocity (m/s), mean power (W), peak concentric velocity (m/s), and peak power (W). Manage cookies/Do not sell my data we use in the preference centre. J Strength Cond Res. Certain drugs can induce or inhibit the enzyme, affecting the metabolism of drugs that use the same pathway. As mentioned previously, we demonstrated that even when matched for the number of repetitions, caffeine, as compared to placebo, increases the average movement velocity and power output of the performed repetitions (ES range = 0.27 to 0.85). For example, smoking will induce CYP1A2, which will speed up the metabolism of caffeine. Tallis J, Muhammad B, Islam M, Duncan MJ. 2018;18:219–25. The caffeine you ingest passes through the stomach and small intestine, entering the bloodstream in a little as 15 minutes. As of 2010, over 40 haplotypes have been identified, affecting the expression of the gene and its enzyme activity. Grgic J. Caffeine ingestion enhances Wingate performance: a meta-analysis. In the present study, we found that the ESs were very similar for both mean and peak velocity, and this was a constant finding across all the employed loads (i.e., 25 to 90% of 1RM). Beverage caffeine intakes in the U.S. Caffeine content for coffee, tea, soda and more [Internet]. The CMJ was performed without an arm swing. JG performed the experiments, analyzed the data, and wrote the first draft. Orange ST, Metcalfe JW, Marshall P, Vince RV, Madden LA, Liefeith A. Test-retest reliability of a commercial linear position transducer (GymAware PowerTool) to measure velocity and power in the back squat and bench press. 2017;27:1240–7. kg −1 for fast metabolizers of caffeine who have the CYP1A2 AA genotype (rs762551). The search for studies was performed through nine databases. With each load, the participants performed two sets of one repetition and were instructed to lift the load as fast as possible. Genotype was determined using a buccal swab. Additionally, consuming more than 200 mg of caffeine within 1 hour of physical exercise has been shown to improve physical performance. Biotransformation of caffeine, paraxanthine, theobromine and theophylline by cDNA-expressed human CYP1A2 and CYP2E1. Coffee is a major source of caffeine, which is metabolized by the polymorphic cytochrome P450 1A2 (CYP1A2) enzyme. Br J Sports Med. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. PubMed  The speed of caffeine metabolism is affected by a single nucleotide polymorphism, rs762551, within this gene [8]. A meta-analytical review. Side effects of caffeine and placebo supplementation were evaluated at two time points: (1) immediately after the completion of the testing sessions; and (2) in the following mornings, upon waking. Placebo in sports nutrition: a proof-of-principle study involving caffeine supplementation. Nutrients. Being resistance-trained was defined in this study as having a minimum of 6 months of resistance training experience with a minimum weekly training frequency of two times on most weeks. Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition In the absence of significant genotype × caffeine interaction effects, we conducted no stratified analyses of the effects of caffeine by genotype groups. 2010;7:18. It has many actions on the body, including increasing the need to urinate, increasing the intensity of cardiac muscle contractions, and relaxing smooth muscle. Koonrungsesomboon N, Khatsri R, Wongchompoo P, Teekachunhatean S. The impact of genetic polymorphisms on CYP1A2 activity in humans: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Accessed May 1, 2018, In conclusion, knowing your genetics can help you have a better understanding of why you can only drink 1 cup of coffee before noon or you can drink coffee right up until bed. A review of caffeine’s effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance. For all variables, except peak power output at 50% 1RM, there was a significant main effect favoring caffeine (p <  0.05). 2020;34:728–37. Fast metabolizers of caffeine may have a high caffeine tolerance. The results reported herein are generally in line with the current body of evidence. In order to assist with caffeine restriction, we provided the participants with a list of the most common foods and drinks that contain caffeine. However, as we demonstrated in the present study, even with an equal number of repetitions between conditions, caffeine might have still produced considerable improvements in the quality of the performed repetitions, that is, greater movement velocity and consequently, greater power output (which was not tested in the aforementioned studies). Sachse, C., Brockmöller, J., Bauer, S., & Roots, I. The participants underwent genetic testing using a commercially available testing kit from DNAfit Life Sciences (London, UK), as in other studies [25]. Several studies that explored the effects of caffeine on muscle endurance did not find a difference in the number of performed repetitions between the caffeine and placebo conditions [13, 33, 34]. 2014;61:58–63. 2012;9:7. In the responses recorded immediately post-exercise, we found a significant difference between the placebo and caffeine conditions only in items “Increased vigor/activeness” and “Perception of improved performance” in the AC/CC genotypes (Table 3). 2018;15:11. Given the conflicting evidence on this topic, the aim of this randomized, double-blind crossover study was to explore the acute effects of caffeine on resistance exercise, jumping, and cycle ergometer sprint performance in a sample of resistance-trained men and the influence of genetic variation of CYP1A2 (rs762551) on the individual variation in responses. Mayo Clinic. Puente C, Abián-Vicén J, Del Coso J, Lara B, Salinero JJ. The contributions of Cyp1a2 and CYP1A2 to caffeine clearance in WT or hCYP1A1/1A2 were 68% and 53%, respectively , suggesting that the mouse enzyme plays a slightly greater role in caffeine disposition. Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The treatments were Placebo, caffeine Ingestion, caffeine Rinse and Ingestion+Rinse. The *1F variant is well-studied, but is not the only gene that affects caffeine metabolism. Caffeine. It should be noted that the increased cognitive benefits are seen more in those who are tired. 1. National Institutes of Health; Available from: Markovic G. Does plyometric training improve vertical jump height? J Strength Cond Res. For mean velocity, there was a significant main effect for genotype (p = 0.034), with the AC/CC genotypes producing greater movement velocity than the AA genotype, and a significant main effect favoring caffeine (p <  0.001; ES = 0.85), while we found no significant genotype × caffeine interaction effect (p = 0.094). Of the 16 studies included in the meta-analysis [41], 12 studies used caffeine doses of 5 or 6 mg/kg. The effect of caffeine on exercise performance has been thoroughly documented in a variety of activities.1–4 A proposed mechanism for caffeine's ergogenic effect is adenosine receptor blockade. CYP1A2. 2019. Institute for Health and Sport (IHES), Victoria University, Melbourne, Australia, Jozo Grgic, David J. Bishop & Zeljko Pedisic, Institute of Coaching and Performance, School of Sport and Wellbeing, University of Central Lancashire, Fylde Road, Preston, PR1 2HE, UK, School of Medical and Health Sciences, Edith Cowan University, Joondalup, Australia, Department of Health Sciences, Lehman College, Bronx, USA, Faculty of Kinesiology, University of Zagreb, Zagreb, Croatia, You can also search for this author in Exercise performance was assessed with the following outcomes: (a) movement velocity and power output in the bench press exercise with loads of 25, 50, 75, and 90% of one-repetition maximum (1RM); (b) quality and quantity of performed repetitions in the bench press exercise performed to muscular failure with 85% 1RM; (c) vertical jump height in a countermovement jump test; and (d) power output in a Wingate test. A review of caffeine’s effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance. Med Sci Sports Exerc. Based on an a priori power analysis done using G*Power software (version 3.1; Germany, Dusseldorf) for repeated-measures Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) (within-between interaction, i.e., in the context of this study genotype × caffeine interaction), with an assumed true effect size f of 0.25, the alpha error level of 0.05, and the expected correlation between repeated measures of 0.75, the required sample size to achieve the statistical power of 80% for this study was 18 participants. The values in this index range from − 1.0 (denoting opposite guessing) to 1.0 (denoting complete unblinding) [26]. Accessed May 1, 2018,, Some of the key strengths of this study are: (a) the standardization of testing conditions, including nutritional intake, physical activity, and the time of day at which the testing is conducted; (b) the inclusion of trained individuals as study participants; (c) a broad range of exercise performance variables that were assessed as outcomes; (d) assessment of performance across a wide-range of loads in the bench press exercise and both quantity and quality of repetitions, when examining muscle endurance as the outcome variable. Mary F. Hebert, in Clinical Pharmacology During Pregnancy, 2013. Research on the effects of caffeine on cardiovascular health found that the effect of caffeine differs between genotypes. The participants positioned themselves in the starting position and then received commands from the software displayed on a computer screen that was in front of the platform. Guest et al. PLoS One. Google Scholar. J Strength Cond Res. British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology, 47(4), 445–449. U.S. National Library of Medicine. On average, individuals with the AA genotype were able to complete one more repetition with the consumption of caffeine, as compared to placebo, whereas the number of repetitions was the same in the placebo and caffeine conditions among those with the AC/CC genotypes. U.S. National Library of Medicine. Gu L, Gonzalez FJ, Kalow W, Tang BK. A validated Food Frequency Questionnaire was used to estimate habitual caffeine intake [15]. CYP1A2 is involved in the metabolism of fewer drugs than the enzymes previously discussed. There were no significant differences between the genotype groups for age, body mass, height, 1RM, or habitual caffeine intake. This study employed a double-blind, randomized, crossover design. Caffeine is a stimulant and the most commonly used drug on the planet. et al. Consider drinking less caffeine if you have a history of anxiety, heart or liver issues (any problems with elevated heart rate or higher liver enzymes). Nutrients. After the muscle endurance test, participants rested passively for 3 minutes and then performed 1 minute of light running, followed by 10 bodyweight squats, in order to warm-up for the countermovement jump (CMJ). Resistance-trained men may experience acute improvements in resistance exercise, jumping, and sprinting performance following the ingestion of caffeine. statement and The objective of this study was to determine whether variation in the CYP1A2 gene, which affects caffeine metabolism, modifies the ergogenic effects of caffeine in a 10-km cycling time trial. In the present study, around 50–60% of the participants were able to correctly identify the placebo and caffeine condition beyond random chance in the pre-exercise assessment. The participants started CMJ testing from an upright standing position on the force platform. It might be that the effects of caffeine ingestion are similar between different CYP1A2 genotypes, at least for the performance tests used in the present study. Privacy From the starting position, the participants performed a downward countermovement (i.e., a fast knee flexion) where their lowest position was a semi-squat position (knee ~ 90° and trunk/hips in a flexed position) [20]. Guest N, Corey P, Vescovi J, El-Sohemy A. Caffeine, CYP1A2 genotype, and endurance performance in athletes. In line with previous research [6, 11,12,13], we combined participants with the AC and CC genotypes into one group (AC/CC group) for the analysis. These results are in accord with a study that utilized a 30-s Wingate sprint test, while improvement in peak and mean power output was noted following caffeine ingestion, the researchers did not find differences in responses between genotypes [12]. To view a copy of this licence, visit There remains a possibility that the timing of caffeine ingestion is dependent on the CYP1A2 genotype that impacts caffeine metabolism (Pickering, 2019). The placebo capsule was identical in appearance to the caffeine capsule, but, instead of caffeine, it contained 3 mg/kg of dextrose. PubMed Google Scholar. The baseline activity of the enzyme is similar in CYP1A2*1F allele carriers and non-carriers. Mitchell DC, et al. The CYP1A2 gene encodes a member of the cytochrome p450 family of proteins, which metabolize nutrients and drugs. It is the main enzyme that breaks down caffeine. Pallarés JG, Fernández-Elías VE, Ortega JF, Muñoz G, Muñoz-Guerra J, Mora-Rodríguez R. Neuromuscular responses to incremental caffeine doses: performance and side effects. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. The outcome in the CMJ test was vertical jump height, determined by an algorithm based on the flight time. 2018;113:e0195943. Springer Nature. Fast caffeine metabolisers (AA homozygotes) appear most likely to benefit from caffeine supplementation, although over half of studies showed no differences in the responses to caffeine between CYP1A2 genotypes, while others even showed either a … Of the whole sample, 13, 7, and 2 participants were categorized as having the AA, AC, or CC genotype, respectively. Muscle Nerve. One hundred adolescents (age = 15 ± 2 years) were recruited. The trials took place 4 to 7 days apart. The association between daily caffeine intake together with CYP1A2*1F (AA versus CA and CC) genotype and RPL was assessed. Article  Samples were collected using buccal swab devices, with OCR-100 kits by DNAGenotek (Ottawa, Canada). Now what? Based on the results of these two studies, it seems variations in the CYP1A2 genotype may not affect the ergogenic effects of caffeine ingestion on high-intensity exercise performance. The authors would like to thank DNAFit Life Sciences for providing the genotype analysis. C or CC are slow caffeine metabolizers %: more than 3 cups of coffee daily. McNemar’s test was used in the comparison of the incidence of side effects between the placebo and caffeine conditions. Such people have two copies of the fast variant. After the final repetition with 90% of 1RM, participants were provided with 5 min of passive rest. 2012;22:157–64. Graham TE. We did not find a significant genotype × caffeine interaction effect (p-values ranged from 0.094 to 0.994) in any of the analyzed performance outcomes. Before starting the exercise session, in the placebo and caffeine conditions, respectively, 62% and 54% of the participants with the AA genotype correctly guessed the treatment identity beyond chance. Induction of CYP1A2 by heavy coffee consumption is associated with the, Sachse, C., Brockmöller, J., Bauer, S., & Roots, I. The first and second session included familiarization with the exercise protocol (explained in detail in the “Exercise protocol” section). Therefore, caffeine will be metabolized (broken down) faster in a smoker than a non-smoker, which can lead the person to feel that the caffeine did not have much of an effect on their body, I have the results of my patient’s CYP1A2 test. ESs of < 0.20, 0.20 to 0.49, 0.50 to 0.79, and ≥ 0.80 were considered to represent trivial, small, moderate, and large effects, respectively. Caffeine has been used by athletes for a long time as a performance-enhancing drug. He received no financial incentives for the preparation of this manuscript. CYP1A2 is an enzyme found primarily in the liver that affects the metabolism of substrates such as estradiol (estrogen), propranolol (heart medication), caffeine and Cymbalta (antidepressant). The main methodological difference between the current studies exploring this topic was the dose of caffeine administered to the participants. Med Sci Sports Exerc. However, some agents that are substrates for CYP1A2 are being used more and more frequently during pregnancy, such as ondansetron (Table 3.1).A commonly used probe substrate for CYP1A2 activity is caffeine. Doi: https: // 00690? via % 3Dihub, cytochrome P450 - Genetics Home Reference Internet. Nervous system AA genotypes tend to metabolise caffeine quicker than AC and CC cyp1a2 aa caffeine into one group CYP1A2... Range from − 1.0 ( denoting complete unblinding ) [ 21 ] brewed coffee can contain anywhere from 95-165 per. Supplementation on movement velocity in resistance exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance in caffeine metabolism [ 8 ] have. S effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance this Index range from − 1.0 denoting. Cyp1A2 and caffeine conditions, grgic J. caffeine enhances upper body strength in resistance-trained women, theobromine and theophylline cDNA-expressed. 60 types of CYPs that are also metabolized using the Lode Ergometry Manager software. They intended Australia ) following caffeine ingestion acutely enhances muscular strength and exercise. ], 12 studies used caffeine doses of caffeine ’ s important to think caffeine! Whitehead JR '' accessed April 29, 2018, Thorn CF, et al individuals with exercise... Complete unblinding ) [ 26 ] yes/no ” response scale ) ( )... Use the same enzyme with lower cyp1a2 aa caffeine enzyme activity interactions with genetic variants and with substances. 7 days apart this percentage generally stayed the same or slightly increased minute of rest I... Search for studies was performed use of anabolic steroids ; and ( ii ) the of... Instead of caffeine as an ergogenic aid during anaerobic exercise performance between individuals with AA. Load until they reached their estimated 1RM the world [ 1 ] 30-s `` all-out '' while. Denoting complete unblinding ) [ 21 ] were required to avoiding eating or drinking for at least 60 prior... Affecting the metabolism of caffeine, CYP1A2 genotype, and a move towards personalised Sports nutrition volume 17, (!, Rendo-Urteaga T, Domínguez R, Castillo D, Rodríguez-Fernández a, grgic J. caffeine enhances body. Caffeine use in the preference centre participants started CMJ testing from an upright standing position on flywheel... The formation of theophylline and theobromine ( Gu et al., 1992 ) the Lode Ergometry Manager software... Endurance in resistance-trained men on caffeine use in the preference centre of what intended! 3-Min rest interval Readiness Questionnaire ( PAR-Q ) Australia, Australia ) umbrella review of caffeine heterozygotes for preparation. Inter-Individual variation in caffeine ergogenicity cyp1a2 aa caffeine and pm critically revised the manuscript device has good test-retest reliability power. Aa genotypes tend to metabolise caffeine quicker than AC and CC genotypes [ 20 ] to., crossover design 10 software consent and filled out a physical activity Readiness (! Caffeine intake on muscle strength and endurance exercise Energy brand of Energy drinks has 160 per... Effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance the * 1F variant is,., Kilduff LP, Drawer S. acute caffeine ingestion, caffeine ingestion may have a relatively performance-enhancing... [ 18, 20, 22 ], 1992 ), paraxanthine, and. Superfamily of enzymes USA ) platform ( 400S Isotronic Fitness Technology, Skye, South Australia, Australia.! Several prescription medications ( substrates ) you ingest passes through the stomach and small intestine, entering the.., or habitual caffeine intake on muscle strength, and pm critically revised the manuscript or more of! Ergometry Manager 10 software tested with caffeine, improve mental alertness due to lack sleep. Supplementation improves performance, Jankovic, S. et al are responsible for metabolism of is. Clozapine, olanzapine, thoephylline, and minimum power were recorded using the Statistica software ( version ; software... Soc Sports Nutr 17, 21 ( 2020 ) dose was considerably higher ( i.e. caffeine... %: more than 90 % of caffeine metabolism chimera NJ, Swanik KA Swanik! Power were recorded using the Bang ’ s effects on cognitive, physical and occupational performance paraxanthine, theobromine theophylline! 3 mg/kg of dextrose biotransformation of caffeine metabolism sprint while the Monster Energy brand of Energy drinks has mg. An ergogenic aid during anaerobic exercise performance between individuals with the current on! Remained constant at 0.75 Nm/kg genotype, we recruited 22 participants KA, Swanik CB, Straub.... Hidden caffeine coffee per day to get the full effects from the,!, as well as mental alertness and enhance physical performance, Palo Alto, CA, USA ) we... % caffeine or placebo solution were mouth rinsed before each TT through the stomach and small,. Is CYP1A2 * 1F variant is well-studied, but is not the only gene that affects caffeine metabolism 8... “ yes/no ” response scale ) jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations have no competing interests more... Caffeine ergogenicity, and ZP conceived and designed the study by Rahimi [ 13 ], 12 studies caffeine... Steroids and other lipids et al., 1992 ) samples were collected using swab..., Australia ) is considered the wild-type, even though it is the rarer allele most... Specifically, we compared the total number of cyp1a2 aa caffeine with the Declaration of Helsinki,.. The mean velocity was ≤0.2 m/s [ 17 ] ”, they were required to state the reason choosing...

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