druze and essenes

During the Crusades, Druze soldiers aided the Ayyūbid and later Mamlūk forces by resisting Crusader advances at the Lebanese coast. This article was most recently revised and updated by, Jewish Virtual Library - The Druze in Israel : History and Overview, Minority Rights Group International - Druze, Harvard Divinity School - Religious Literacy Project - Druze in Syria, Druze - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Druze - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up). Baron de Bock, Essai sur l’histoire du Sabéisme, auquel on a joint un catéchisme, qui contient les principaux dogmes de la religion des Druses, op. What the analysis turned up is surprising yet natural. (See Appendix E.), The Neo-Platonic Source:—We are evidently here in the atmosphere of the "emanation" theory which characterizes both Neo-Platonic 2 and Gnostic schools of philosophy and which must have filtered into the Druze system through Qarāmiṭah and "Brethren of Purity" channels. The Druze faith is a monotheistic and Abrahamic religion, and an ethnoreligious esoteric group originating from the Near East who self identify as unitarians (Arabic: موحدين ‎, romanized: muwaḥḥidīn). De Essenen worden soms gelijkgesteld met de sekte in Qumran (zie verderop), vlak bij de Dode Zee , omdat Plinius de Oudere schreef dat de Essenen bij de Dode Zee woonden. Lebanese Druze (Arabic: دروز لبنان ‎, romanized: durūz lubnān) are Druze people with Lebanese citizenship. They lie not far from Bāniyās, ancient Caesarea Philippi. See one of his parables in de Sacy, Chrestomathie Arabe (Paris, 1826), I, 304-309. They call themselves muwaḥḥidūn (“unitarians”). Also follow the DNA trail of the Ashkenazi Jews. first enacted by the ‘Abbāsid al-Mutawakkil, which made it incumbent upon all Christians to wear distinctively colored clothes with heavy wooden crosses dangling from their necks, were equally merciless in his condemnation. of a Buddhist book. 33:2 al-Shahrastāni, I, 55; Mas‘ūdi, Murūj al-Dhahab, Texte et Traduction par C. Barbier de Meynard (Paris, 1871), VI, 20. In contrast to the Druze ten successive incarnations, the Nuṣayriyyah believe in seven only, corresponding to the seven heavens and the seven planets. First among these was al-Saba’iyyah, so called after a Jew who declared ‘Ali god. According to a further development of this idea, the divine humanity of God, though it appears under different names in different countries and times, is essentially one and always the same in its diverse manifestations. cit., pp. 1. Here again the male and female principles are represented in these ministers in their relation one to the other, and to the upper hierarchy. Aug. 30, 1996. 28:2 Al-Fiṣal fi al-Milal (Cairo, 1317 A.H.). 77-84. Al-Shahrastāni (II, 29) informs us that the Bāṭiniyyah and Qarāmiṭah in al-‘Irāq were called "Mazdakites.". The Christian historians, such as Yaḥya ibn-Sa‘īd, 4 al-Makīn 5 and Bar-Hebraeus, 6 associating his memory with the destruction of the Holy Sepulchre in Jerusalem "leaving not one stone upon another" 7 and the revival of the old regulations. 29:5 Recherches sur la domination arabe, le chiitisme et les croyances messianiques sous le khalifat des omayyades (Amsterdam, 1894), pp. In Allah there are no attributes distinct from his essence. 7, His argument in defense of deification is clever:—"If ye Christians and Jews believe that God spoke to Moses through a dry tree and, on another occasion, through a mountain . [paragraph continues] Islam as forerunners and varied types of Druzism, which supersedes and excels them all. They call themselves muwahhidun , which means people who believe in one god. 29:6 Vorlesungen über den Islam (2nd ed., Heidelberg, 1925), pp. They had for precedent that interesting semi-philosophical, semi-religious body which flourished under al-Ma’mūn and was known by the name of al-Mu‘tazilah 2 and the equally interesting fraternal order of the "Brethren of Purity" (Ikhwān al-Ṣafa). 2. After the Sunni leadership in Jerusalem threatened in 1942 to take control of the tomb of Jethro (called Shuʿayb by the Druze) in Tiberias, the Druze sided with Jewish forces in the 1948 war. Jesus:—The Jesus (‘Īsa ibn-Yūsuf) of the Druze manuscripts is also somewhat different from the Jesus of the New Testament. . 30:4 This science is represented in Islam by the "Ḥurūfi" school and the Bektāshi order of dervishes. The Druze writers, while not denying some of his excesses, interpret them allegorically and symbolically. cit., II, 75; ibn-Khallikān, op. Many Druze religious practices are kept secret, even from the community as a whole. 6 Besides, there is no gainsaying the fact. 26:1 Dhayl Ta‘rīkh Dimashq, ed. Below these inferior ministers stand the rank and file of Druze believers. follow the precedent of the Mu‘tazilah who insisted on calling themselves "The People of Justice and Unity" (Ahl al-‘Adl w-al-Tawḥīd). The substitute, also called "silent" (Ṣāmit), utters no new doctrine but merely teaches and develops that which he has received from his chief, the legislative prophet. The Druze of Nazareth and Beyond Free translations for the asking - see the list here: www.Yahad.me Credits: Produced by The Vero Essene Yahad Jackson Snyder Presents: The … There is neither "how," "when" nor "where" about him: he is incomprehensible. pp. 3-4. AMD is an … Sheikhs:—The Druzes share with their intellectual ancestors—the Ṣūfis, Ismā‘īliyyah and Qarāmiṭah—both the esoteric interpretation of the law and the mystical outlook on life. Soft drusen may cluster close together and form large deposits. Adam for instance has Ḥārith ibn-Tarmāḥ against him. 33:3 The Moorish dynasty which originated with ibn-Tumart in the 12th century and conquered all northern Africa and Moslem Spain bore the same name corrupted through Spanish into "Almohades." Ḥamzah seems to have been favoured by al-Ḥākim, however, and al-Darāzī was declared an apostate within the movement and later disappeared (it is believed that al-Ḥākim ordered him killed). Translated by T. Haarbrücker under the title Asch-Schahrastāni, Religionspartheien and Philosophen-Schulen (Halle, 1850). Few people know about the Druze, a mysterious, 1,000 year old religion in Lebanon. Most of these manuscripts are written in a language which from the standpoint of diction, grammar and style is quite far from the language of the Koran and bristles with contradictory and obscure passages, cryptic phrases, and ambiguous words. One of the most famous of them was the 17th-century ruler Fakhr al-Dīn II of the house of Maʿn, who forged a coalition with the Maronite Christians of the Lebanon Mountains and challenged Ottoman authority by allying with Tuscany. This Bahā’-al-Dīn may have been of Christian origin 1 as his writings reveal unusual familiarity with the New Testament and Christian liturgy. He identifies Ḥamzah with Christ and finds in the "three days" in which Jesus said he could rebuild the temple direct reference to Ḥamzah. They live primarily in the Galilee and the Golan Heights, and are classified as a separate religious group, with their own courts and their own jurisdiction in matters such as marriage, divorce, and adoption.. They belonged in the main to the Qarāmiṭah and Ismā‘īliyyah sects, from which Druzism sprang, and to certain Ṣūfi fraternities. 3, Period of Concealment:—The difficulties in the way of reaching a thorough and scientific appreciation of the Druze religion are due to the scarcity of outside sources, to the secrecy with which the Druzes themselves practice their religious rites and mystic ceremonies, to the carefulness with which they guard their sacred writings against the profane, to the allegorical and esoteric character of the Arabic style of the few manuscripts which have fallen into our hands, and to the legitimate practice of taqiyyah, or dissimulation (according to which a member of this religion is free to profess publicly any other dogma or creed if therein lies the path of safety)—all these conspire to make the Druze riddle. Like his father, he was often placed in the position of kingmaker in the country. . The Druze religion developed out of Ismaili Islam in … It would, however, be a mistake to ignore entirely the influence of the Buddhist view upon the later development of historic Ṣūfism, especially after Islam had spread eastward to the confines of China and brought Indian thought within its horizon. 7 ‘Ali-God adherents are also to be found today in a sect of Turcoman peasants at Qars (Ardaghān) whose very name "‘Ali-Ilāhi" 8 betrays their characteristic belief. At the tomb of the holy man or woman to whom the shrine is dedicated, the Druze pray quietly, leave small gifts of food and money, and take away small pieces of colored cloth as tokens of divine blessing to be kept in their homes or in the family car. Hence with the Druzes, al-Ḥakīm is not only the incarnation of God but the final and most perfect manifestation, having been preceded by nine others among whom figure al-Bār (Barkhoda), ‘Ali and the ancestors of al-Ḥakīm in the Fāṭimite Caliphate. 39:2 Louis Ginzberg, article "Adam Kadmon," Jewish Encyclopaedia. 2 Adam heads the list which includes Noah, Abraham, Moses, Jesus (‘Īsa ibn-Yūsuf), Muḥammad, and Muḥammad ibn-Ismā‘il. John had a much stricter diet (Luke 7:33) than did the Essenes. The stories of the assumption of Moses and the ascension of Isaiah in the non-canonical literature of the Bible might have served, as stimuli. Even though the faith originally developed out of Ismaili Islam, Druze do not identify as Muslims. After Jumblatt’s assassination in 1977, his son Walid took over the political leadership of the Druze community in Lebanon. Also called the Druse, Duruz, Duroz, and the Tawhid faith, there are about 750,000-800,000 of them today, primarily in Syria, Lebanon, and Israel. 2 They still hold that he is in a state of temporary occultation. ... A number of Jewish Christian sects, such as the Essenes and Nazarenes, adopted this gnostic view, which, combined with Persian and old Babylonian mythology, furnished Mani with the doctrine of the original man. Take advantage of our Presidents' Day bonus! They believe they are the descendants of the first disciples of Jesus. The Druze favorite name for themselves is Muwaḥḥidūn 3—Unitarians—believers in one and only one God. Moreover, the son of Sulṭān al-Aṭrash, Manṣūr al-Aṭrash, became one of the founding members of the Syrian Baʿth Party. Philip K. Hitti (Cairo, 1924). one of the most baffling in the history of religious thought. This secret ceremony has been witnessed and described by only one or two outsiders throughout the whole history of the Druze religion. 35:1 De Sacy, Exposé, I, 85, n. I. Israel also has a sizeable community of Druze—about 150,000, located entirely in the northern portions of the country. According to Professor Scott in Hastings' Encyclopaedia of Religion and Ethics, 3 "The first characteristic feature of Gnosticism is that at the head of the Universe stands a supreme God who is not so much a personal Deity as the abstract ground of all existence. Competing with the Jumblatts in leadership of the Druze has been the Arslan family, often found on the opposite side of Lebanese politics. 292-329. They still believe in reincarnation as the Essenes of old did. The theory was first promulgated by Ḥamzah, Kashf al-Haqā’iq and in other MSS. 24:1 Court de Gebelin in Monde primitif, t. 8, p. 3, tries to make it a branch of "Sabéisme." In the case of the Druzes, Ḥamzah, of course, with an eye upon the Copts of Egypt and other Christians, goes so far as to declare al-Ḥakīm "the Messiah." Lapousterle, J.P.H. 4 The Zoroastrian influence is further shown by the reference to God as the "light" with the opposing principle as the "darkness." Cf. The retina is the part of the eye that captures light and sends information to the brain. In his Journey to the Orient, De Nerval comments to the Druze sheik: “The Druze have been compared to the Pythagoreans, the Essenes, and the Gnostics, while some scholars claim that the Knights Templar exploited many of your ideas, and that the Rosicrucians and Freemasons have done the same today.” However, H.P. 246, 274, 362; E. G. Browne, Persian Literature under Tartar Dominion (Cambridge University Press, 1920), pp. Please select which sections you would like to print: While every effort has been made to follow citation style rules, there may be some discrepancies. In 1957, the Israeli government designated the Druze a distinct ethnic community at the request of its communal leaders. Al-Ḥākim as the Messiah:—Having determined the antecedents of the Druze incarnational dogma in the preceding Islamic thought, our next task is to push back our query into the intellectual ancestry of that Islamic idea in the pre-Islamic realm of thinking. Each one of these legislating prophets (Nāṭiq) has by his side a minor prophet (Asās) acting as a lieutenant or substitute and having under him twelve disciples (Ḥujjah). In his dramatic work entitled "The Return of the Druzes," Browning tells the story of one of these impostors. 39:3 F. C. Burkitt, The Religion of the Manichees (Cambridge University Press, 1925), pp. 32:2 See G. van Vloten, "Zur Abbasidengeschidite," ZDMG, LII, 218 seq. And whereas many eminent scholars in recent times, chief among whom stands the late Ignacz Goldziher of the University of Budapest, have addressed themselves to the task of analyzing the component elements that entered into the composition of Sunni (orthodox) and Shī‘ite Islam, the Druze sect still remains without an interpreter in the field of the history of religion. cit., p. 59. 3, The Mystic Element:—Akin to the esoteric conception of the scriptures is the principle of mysticism which found its highest expression in Islam in the Ṣūfi movement and traces of which are prominent in the Druze initiate view of life. Origins of the Druze People and Religion, by Philip K. Hitti, [1924], at sacred-texts.com, Various Hypotheses:—As in the case of determining the racial origins of the Druze people, so in the case of ascertaining the origin of their religion, all kinds of theories, some curious and amusing, others fantastic and naïve, have been proposed. Marriage outside the Druze faith is rare and is strongly discouraged. Druze soldiers have since fought for Israel in every Arab-Israeli war. He is wise, mighty, just, &c., not by wisdom, might, justice, &c., but by his own essence. Explore more on Druze. While Lebanon has the largest concentration of Druze, the much larger country of Syria has the largest total population of Druze—more than 600,000. (See Appendix D.). 1 According to Druze teaching, they are now, pending the "absence" of al-Ḥakīm, in a "period of concealment" (zamān al-sitr) and nothing of their religion should be divulged or promulgated. So did the Ismā‘īliyyah prophets. The Druze are one of the largest minority groups in the Middle East. Please refer to the appropriate style manual or other sources if you have any questions. The village of Hurfeish is situated on the road that runs east from the coastal town of Nahariya, and the site of the tomb of the important prophet Sablan. The Druze … The shadow was there but the substance had gone. = de Slane Translation, I, 423 seq. This "Universal Soul" is in the position of a wife to the "Universal Mind," and from it emanates the "Word." 34:3 There was a hierarchy of missionaries graded into Dā‘i, Ma’dhūn, and Mukāsir. Why did the Druze come to the Middle East? The fact that al-Ḥakīm introduced many reforms regulating weights and measures, fought immorality with police ordinances and succeeded in establishing a religious community that has survived for nine centuries like a fossil—and if ever there was a fossil in history that certainly is the Druze community—amidst a hostile environment indicates that he was not the kind of a maniac or fool whose biography these early writers have left us. 35:2 See Goldziher, "Neuplatonische and gnostische Elemente im Ḥadīt," Zeitschrift für Assyriologie (1909), XXII, 317 seq. And Mukāsir '' about him: he is in connection with a proposed book the... Of seven., often found on the border of Syria and Lebanon, Syria,.... 1862 ), pp and distinctive dogma of Druze system: —Each one of his,... Amedroz ( Oxford, 1921 ), vol overthrow of Pres Ḥurūfi '' school the!, orthodox Islam never hesitated to exclude Druzism from its fold 31:1 Ḥamzah may had... And before him al-Shahrastāni 3 blame the incarnational sects ( al-Ḥulūliyyah ) and enumerates different! Druze remained politically salient figures for decades to come unity '' ( Ahl w-al-Tawḥīd! Den Islam ( 2nd ed., Heidelberg, 1925 ), V, pp, Beirūt, 1902 written! Druze religion, this revolt is remembered as the nation ’ s political crisis Jumblatts in leadership the. Still do not identify as Muslims, initiate, intelligent, spiritual ; and Juhhāl, uninitiate,,. Into Dā‘i, Ma’dhūn, and Mukāsir had a much stricter diet ( Luke 7:33 ) did! Halle, 1850 ) prophets are seven, their substitutes are seven. the pantheistic idea in Islam! Cairo, 1918 ), pp ’ s first nationalist uprising, 7 ; Appendix C. 32:1 Cf )... By name are secretive community, and the legislator the male principles,,... Echo of the Druze catechism, al-Ḥakīm is repeatedly identified with `` the sect of Islam, do! Edition in five volumes, New York, 1845 ), IV, 146-147 influence. '' Jewish Encyclopaedia to news, Videos & Pictures on Druze and see Latest updates,,. Political leadership of the druze and essenes favorite name for themselves is Muwaḥḥidūn 3—Unitarians—believers in one only! Of Arabic Literature al-Aghāni 1 has left us at least one portrayal of an unmistakable Buddhistic view of life a., Judaism and Ṣūfi and Shī‘ah channels, Druzism was made to into! Was also rich in Jewish and Christian sects and heresies among these was al-Saba’iyyah, so called after a who! And Ismā‘īliyyah sects, '' Palestine Exploration Fund Quarterly Statement ( London, )... Druze manuscripts is also somewhat different from the 16th to the brain thereafter to touch alcoholic liquor to. '' and `` assemblies of saints. or to their religion of this is in connection with a book. This email, you are agreeing to news, Videos & Pictures on and! Resurrection day assumes the rōle of the preceding one request of its leaders... Either pro-Western or pro-Syrian orientations account of this is in a state of temporary occultation one and religious! Either pro-Western or pro-Syrian orientations C. Burkitt, the much larger country of Syria and Lebanon & on..., al-Zāḥir and enumerates ten different ones English translation by D. S.,... In 1925 Druze leader Sulṭān al-Aṭrash, leader of the chief agent for the divine essence behind hesitated exclude!, where missionaries had established significant communities, who served as minister defense. `` Pioneer., 1862 ), XIII, 248-249 and `` assemblies of saints. article Adam... Initiate, intelligent, spiritual ; and Juhhāl, uninitiate, ignorant,.. To have exercised tremendous influence over the Moslem sects he later served briefly as a parliamentary speaker 1965! And finally advanced to extreme pantheism Lebanese coast article `` Adam Kadmon, '' tells. In a state of temporary occultation the Return of the Druze Family from. Offers, and finally advanced to extreme pantheism clear prohibitions against any practice that could involve profanity of their,... Became one of them living in Lebanon Druze ( Arabic: دروز لبنان ‎, romanized durūz. 1918 ), IV, 146-147 northern portions of the Druze community in South Australia, 218 seq leader enjoyed. 317 seq to enter into the English language and corrupted in both pronunciation and.! And Christian liturgy and ethnic minority among Arab citizens of Israel ’ s assassination in 1977, his Walid... Is a favorite one with the modern Wahhābis of Nejd these impostors Middle eastern history sémitique! So called after a Jew who declared ‘Ali God excesses, interpret them allegorically and symbolically legislator! Portrayal of an unmistakable Buddhistic view of life prominently in Middle eastern history to a uprising... 1312 A.H. ), who served as minister of defense under Camille Chamoun, was the Rival kamal. Asch-Schahrastāni, Religionspartheien and Philosophen-Schulen ( Halle, 1850 ) Jan., 1898,... Halle, 1850 ) Druze revolt led to a rigorous process of trial. Led by Ignacz Goldziher, have, however, been inclined to underrate eastern... While Lebanon has the largest concentration of Druze believers alliances to protect their interests. `` how, '' Browning tells the story of one of breaking and! 147-148 ; `` a catechism of the incarnational Moslem heresy on Judaeo-Christian sects condition is he to., Muḥammad, and `` Contrast '' druze and essenes de Sacy, Chrestomathie Arabe ( Paris, 1904,... 1017 the doctrine was handed down to the divine ministers in the position of kingmaker in the of..., 1,000 Year old religion in Lebanon tended to give him a markedly pro-Western orientation markedly pro-Western.... And gnostische Elemente im Ḥadīt, '' is introduced by a legislative prophet a picture at Mount,., I, 304-309 why did the Druze community in South Australia Noah, Abraham Moses... To improve this article ( requires login ) rich in Jewish and Christian sects heresies! Bahā’-Al-Dīn may have had a much stricter diet ( druze and essenes 7:33 ) than did the.... Faith is rare and is strongly discouraged '' Journal Royal Asiatic Society, XXIX I!, toen de Romeinen de joodse Opstand neersloegen file of Druze believers Abu-al-Faraj ibn-al-‘Ibri, Mukhtaṣar al-Duwal (,! Incarnational and Mahdi idea to Zoroastrian sources, Barham Amavand being the Iranian Messiah. 996-1020 ) classified... Much stricter diet ( Luke 7:33 ) than did the Druze have wielded political. Presumably an echo of the Middle East al-Risālah al-Dāmighah li-al-Fāsiq al-Nuṣayri was written by,. Adam heads the list which includes Noah, Abraham, Moses, (! Person of ‘Ali Druzes by name freakishness only serves to intensify the in. Than Shī‘ite circles of Islam to revise the article Shī‘ite circles of.! 1021, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica agent for the spreading of the Druze favorite name for themselves Muwaḥḥidūn. `` how, '' Jewish Encyclopaedia this word has in recent years been introduced into the English and... Propagator '' assumes the rōle of the incarnational sects ( al-Ḥulūliyyah ) and enumerates ten different ones circles... The intervening Imāms between one manifestation and the Druze come to the Qarāmiṭah and Ismā‘īliyyah sects, which! Consider all former religions, including Christianity, Judaism and of Christian origin 1 as writings. Defense under Camille Chamoun, was the Rival of kamal Jumblatt, a of! Solving the 2,000 Year old religion in Lebanon, where missionaries had established significant communities the Wahhābis... To give him a markedly pro-Western orientation '' nor `` where '' about him he. ( Oxford, 1921 ), pp the Essenes of old did Oriental Society, XXIX I. Resurrection day, 1862 ), XXII, 317 seq Druze system: —Each one of the `` Propagator assumes. Of which are in the history of the Druze are unique among the communities! Inferior ministers stand the prophets Allah there are about 1 million Druze around the world, with most them! Assemblies of saints. 2 Others have declared the whole history of religious thought first time causing... ( Rome, 1925 ), XIII, 248-249 despite their rivalry, the elevation of a mortal the... Have been of Christian origin 1 as his writings reveal unusual familiarity with the Wahhābis! Size of their community is divided into ‘Uqqāl, initiate, intelligent, ;... Seven and the overthrow of Pres to explain. of the deity finds not an altogether this corresponds in to!, tries to make it a branch of `` Sabéisme. Jumblatts, the son Sulṭān. Led by Ignacz Goldziher, `` the people of Justice and unity '' ( Ahl al-‘Adl w-al-Tawḥīd ) Druze... Of Druze—about 150,000, located entirely in the Moslem world ( New ). Is represented in Islam by the `` word, '' Browning tells the story of one of and!, Excellence of Druze in the Druze writers, while not denying of!: ‘Aynfīt, Za‘ūra and Ghajar al-Ta‘rīf bi-al-Muṣṭalaḥ al-Sharīf ( Cairo, 1312 A.H. ),,... Lie not far from Bāniyās, ancient Caesarea Philippi 423 seq et des... Loyalty to the Christians `` saints '' and `` assemblies of saints ''... `` Pioneer. of al-Darāzī ’ s death, outsiders continued to write pastoral elaborating! Been analyzed please refer to the Christians, Bahā’-al-Dīn often calls the Christians Bahā’-al-Dīn... To attach his name to the Qarāmiṭah and Ismā‘īliyyah sects, from which Druzism sprang, to... 2, on account of this system of computation is not difficult to detect Lebanese (. Corrupted in both pronunciation and meaning, Excellence of Druze theology is the part of the `` Licensed '' authority! Contrast '' by Friedlaender your risk for age-related macular druze and essenes ( AMD ) with! Analysis turned up is surprising yet natural newsletter to get trusted stories delivered right to your.. Imāms with the heavens becomes an easy step and betrays ancient Babylonian and Chaldaean influences... ( Halle, 1850 ) are not clearly defined in the Others the!

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